October 27, 2008: Barry Cauchon

Which of these pictures do you believe is the last one ever taken of Abraham Lincoln while he was alive?


Recently I’ve received quite a number of inquiries from students wanting to know the true answer to that question. The volume of inquiries makes me believe that a wonderful teacher somewhere has given an assignment to his/her class on this subject. If so, it’s a good exercise because there is so much conflicting information on this topic that I wanted to be sure myself before commenting.

So the first thing I did when faced with this ‘puzzle’ was to investigate the subject from all angles. First I took what I knew about the subject and mixed that with what I could find in books, on the Internet, from the personal opinions from peers and finally, comments from the experts.

I try very hard to only publish information that is verifiably true in an attempt to keep the historical record straight. With the advent of the Internet and self-publishing, it is astonishing to see how much information is posted as fact, when in fact, it is incorrect. The Internet has become a huge game of ‘BROKEN TELEPHONE LINE’ on which factual information quickly becomes outdated, twisted, misquoted, misunderstood and worst of all, reported as the God’s honest truth.

Case in point is the question the students have asked. During Mr. Lincoln’s political career, he participated in many photo sessions as well as sittings for life paintings and even two life masks. The three photos presented at the start of this article are the ones most claimed by sources to be the last photo taken of the President. A quick search on Google helps to prove this point. I found these claims on websites, in books and even in auctions for pictures being sold on ebay. There can only be ‘one last photo’ of Mr. Lincoln taken while he was alive. I say ‘alive’ because there is one authenticated photo in existence of the slain President in his coffin in NYC but that is a different story entirely.

To start with, let me clarify why there is so much confusion over this issue. Basically, the pictures above were taken at two different photo sessions in 1865. One was an impromptu session with photographer Henry F. Warren on the south balcony of the White House on March 6, 1865, just two days after Lincoln’s 2nd inauguration. In that session, Mr. Warren took three pictures of the President.

The other was a formal portrait sitting with photographer Alexander Gardner. At that session, Gardner took a total of five photographs. The date of this session is where the confusion exists. Originally, most Lincoln scholars accepted a date of Monday, April 10, 1865 as the day the sitting took place. Several books published in the 1960s by well-respected Lincoln authors agreed with this date. April 10 meant that these photos were taken just days before Lincoln’s assassination on Friday, April 14. 

But a few years ago, new evidence was found by Mr. Harold Holzer, an eminent Lincoln scholar from the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The evidence indicated that the date of April 10 was not correct and was more likely Sunday, February 05, 1865 instead. This being the case, the Warren photo suddenly became the last known one of Lincoln alive and to this day, it is still considered so.

I have corresponded with Mr. Holzer on numerous occasions and so I wrote to him to ask about this information. He wrote me a nice email in response and included some specifics about the circumstances surrounding his discovery.

Happy to respond. Meserve, Lorant, and Ostendorf all long accepted the date of April 10 for the final Gardner studio poses. Then, years ago, I was researching Lincoln paintings from life and came across the diary of Matthew Wilson, who based his portrait in part on photos he commissioned–at Gardner’s. His canvas bore an unmistakable resemblance to one of the photos in that long-accepted “last” sitting–and according to the artist’s diary, the sitting took place on Feb. 5. Ostendorf and others quickly accepted–maybe appropriated is a better word–the story and adopted the new date. So that’s how Warren became the last photos. Since they were taken outdoors, however, some point out that Gardner’s remain the final studio poses. Hope this helps — Harold”
Before continuing, I want to thank Mr. Holzer for his generousity in sending me this information. I know he has just released a new book and has begun an extensive schedule of touring dates and speaking engagements. Please see the end of this article for more on Mr. Holzer’s book and his personal appearance schedule.

Below is a description of the two photo sessions from an article written by James J. Nance for the February 2008 issue of Kentucky Monthly Magazine entitled “Lincoln’s Last Portrait”. Nance credits references from the book “Lincoln in Photographs” by Lloyd Ostendorf and Charles Hamilton, and describes both the Warren and Gardner sessions.


UPDATE: March 10, 2009: The Henry F. Warren section of this article, which was based on the Ostendorf and Hamilton photographs may not be 100% correct. I have inserted notes in red where differences of opinions between Lincoln experts vary. Also, a new Warren photo has just become public which may show the President in front of the White House. Although this article does not cover that photograph, I have included it, and a close up, to help put it in context with the rest of the article.


Since the Warren photo is considered the last known one of Lincoln alive, I’ll cover that one first. Then I’ll cover the Gardner session which took place about one month earlier. As well, I have included the information on the Mathew Wilson painting that helped to verify the real date of the Gardner sessions.

“The final Lincoln photographs were taken during his inauguration in early March 1865.  In addition to a number of photographs of candid crowd scenes containing the president taken on March 4th, there were three notable photographs taken by Henry F. Warren on March 6th on the balcony of the White House. President Lincoln granted Mr. Warren’s request for a brief  impromptu photo session on the White House balcony. Lincoln carried a chair out himself.  Perhaps Lincoln believed that some photographic record of his inaugural was in order and Mr. Warren was at the right place at the right time.  The first photo was a standing shot, which is noted in Warren’s papers, although the negative and print have never been seen. The remaining two were quick photographs of the chest and head of a seated Lincoln.  Both of these photographs, O-112 and O-113, the last taken of Lincoln when alive, show him looking haunted and even more emaciated and haggard than during his last portrait O-116 from the session a month before on February 5th. Much of his visible exhaustion was surely due to the hectic activities surrounding his inaugural.  However his more advanced weight loss and deteriorating physical condition is evident. The war was still not over and the final details must have weighed heavily on Lincoln. Although these two Warren photos were posed, they could hardly be called a formal portrait. They are fascinating because of their spontaneity and how well they reveal the tension of the moment. They are also very sad images and are not the way most people wish to remember Abraham Lincoln”. 
UPDATE: March 10, 2009: The debate about the Warren photo session concerns how many photos were actually taken that day. The story above claims three. Other’s claim two or even one (the one shown above). I have only ever seen just the one original myself. However there is a ‘second’ one, which is a retouched version of same photograph. If both of these photos are from the same original, then the story about two or three photos taken that day may be incorrect. As is often the case in history, conflicting information can often make it difficult to verify the ‘real story’. Regardless of the version you choose to believe, the Warren photo shown above is still considered the last known photo of Lincoln taken while he was alive.
The new photograph made public this week by the current owner Keya Morgan was taken by Henry Warren on March 6, 1865 (the same day as the Lincoln photo above). It is a shot of the White House but when zoomed in on, a tall man with beard appears. When measured in scale against the height of known structures in the picture, the figure is about 6′-4″, the same height as Lincoln. Experts are excited over the find but ‘cautiously optomistic’ about it actually being Lincoln in the photo. If this photo does contain an image of Abraham Lincoln, and it was taken AFTER the photo above, then this would become the LAST KNOWN PHOTO OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN ALIVE.


Recently discovered and published Warren photo taken on March 6, 1865. The image shows the White House. However when closely inspected, an image of a tall bearded man can be seen. Experts are 'cautiously optomistic' about the possibility that this is Abraham Lincoln.

Recently discovered Warren photo taken on March 6, 1865. The image shows the White House. However when closely inspected, an image of a tall bearded man can be seen to the left of the white gate pedestals. Experts are 'cautiously optomistic' about the possibility that this is Abraham Lincoln. Reed Saxon/AP

The photograph was in a family photo album belonging to Ulysses S. Grant VI, the great-great grandson of President Grant. On the back of the photo is Henry F. Warren’s seal and a government tax stamp. A written inscription reads “Lincoln in front of the White House”.




The close up reveals a tall bearded man purported to be Abraham Lincoln. Experts are 'cautiously optomistic' about its validity. If this is Abraham Lincoln, it could be the last image taken of him while alive. Courtesy of Associated Press.


(continuation of article from October 27, 2008)

I received an email from another Lincoln expert, Professor Ronald Rietveld, Emeritus Professor of History at California State University in Fullerton, California. Professor Rietveld is well known in Lincoln circles as the person who, at age 14, discovered the only known photograph of Abraham Lincoln in death. With regards to the Warren photo, I was surprised to learn that Professor Rietveld owns an original copy. Here is his response to my inquiry about the Warren and Gardner photos.

“Hi Barry:

Your impression that the last known photograph of Lincoln in life was taken by Henry F. Warren on Monday, March 6, 1865–is correct! Indeed, it was taken late afternoon on the south balcony of the White House. And I possess an original copy of that photo which was given to me by Bert Sheldon, a secret service agent at the Franklin D. Roosevelt White House. I think I was about 17 when he gave it to me in Washington, D.C. The other two photos which you attached were taken at Alexander Gardner’s Gallery in Washington, DC on Sunday, February 5, 1865. The last formal pose which Gardner took was a close up. However, the glass plate cracked, and after a single print was made, the glass negative broke completely and Gardner threw the broken pieces away. I do not know when they began giving the date of April 10, 1865 for Gardner’s photos. But the Kunhardts in Twenty Days [1965] missdate the photograph on pages 10-11 of their book. However, the very last photograph taken of the president, as I think you are aware, is the single print of the dead president lying in state in New York City Hall, April 24, 1865, which I discovered in the Nicolay-Hay Papers at the Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, Illinois on July 20, 1952 at 14.

I hope this is of some help. — Ron Rietveld”.



“On a cold bleak Sunday morning on February 5th, 1865 Abraham Lincoln, accompanied by his young son Tad, paid a short visit to the Washington DC photography studio of Alexander Gardner. The Gardner photograph session on February 5th took slightly over an hour from the president’s demanding schedule and consisted of five poses. The first showed a serious looking Tad leaning on a table, beside his amused seated father. All the other poses showed Lincoln sitting in a comfortable Queen Anne style padded chair with minor variations. Of the seated poses, the first had Lincoln with his hands on his legs, the second with his hands grasping the chair arms, and the third with his hands together in his lap holding a pencil and his reading glasses. The third pose, known today to Lincoln scholars as O-116, is the most revered of all Lincoln photos… “  

February 5, 1865 - Alexander Gardner photo of Tad and Abraham Lincoln (exposure #1)

February 5, 1865 - Alexander Gardner photo of Abraham Lincoln (exposure #3)

February 5, 1865 - Alexander Gardner photo of Abraham Lincoln (exposure #3) #O-116

In an article written by Linda Merrill called Abraham Lincoln, February 5, 1865 on http://picturingamerica.neh.gov a great description of the Gardner/Lincoln session is presented.

“Gardner’s surprisingly candid photographs have proven more enduring, even though they were not originally intended to stand alone as works of art. This half-length portrait of Lincoln (above) is one of the finest from that February studio session. The president sits comfortably in a sturdy chair, his left elbow resting on its arm, his right on his own slightly elevated knee. There is nothing in this photograph to indicate Lincoln’s exalted position: we might just as well be looking at a humble country doctor. His clothing appears plain (though not unfashionable) and his loosely knotted bowtie has been left slightly askew. By this point in his public life, the president had sat for dozens of photographs, and he would have been mindful of the need to hold perfectly still during the several minutes it took to make an exposure. In this print, Lincoln’s eyes look steadily toward the camera but his hands fiddle impatiently with his eyeglasses and pencil as if to remind the photographer that he had more important things to do. What draws and holds our attention is Lincoln’s expression, which the poet Walt Whitman described as “a deep latent sadness.” At the time this picture was taken, Lincoln had weathered the worst of the war and almost succeeded in his fight to preserve the Union, yet he was painfully aware how much that cause had cost the nation. Lincoln appears much older than his fifty-five years, and Gardner did nothing to flatter the president’s haggard, careworn features. The photographer may even have exaggerated them, for the turn of Lincoln’s head leaves one side of his face slightly in shadow, making his right eye and cheek appear hollow and cadaverous.

Before this session ended, Gardner asked the president for one last pose. He moved his camera closer and took a photograph of Lincoln’s head, shoulders, and chest.  Mysteriously the glass plate negative cracked. Gardner carefully took it to his dark room and was able to make one print, with an ominous crack across Lincoln’s face, before it broke completely and was discarded. This print, known as O-118, still exists to this day. Over the years many people have associated this crack with a symbolic foretelling of the assassin’s bullet that awaited Lincoln 10 weeks later”.

February 5, 1865 – Alexander Gardner photo of Abraham Lincoln (exposure #5) #O-118. This would have been the last known photo of Lincoln had Matthew Henry Wilson’s diary not confirmed that the Gardner photo session took place in February rather than on April 10 as had been previously believed.


The final painting of Lincoln from life was produced by American portraitist Matthew Henry Wilson. Lincoln, accompanied by his son Tad and the artist, visited Gardner’s studio on February 5, 1865. Wilson had been commissioned by Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles for a sum of $85.00 to paint the president’s portrait. Lincoln would later like the result and joke “that it was horridly like the original.”

But at the time of the session, Lincoln could spare so little time to pose, so the artist needed recent photographs to work from. The pictures served their purpose, but the resulting painting—a traditional, formal, bust-length portrait in an oval format—is not particularly distinguished and hardly remembered today.

After Lincoln’s assassination, a Boston publishing firm exploited the nation’s grief by producing prints of the portrait Matthew Wilson had based on Gardner’s photographs. Gardner’s own publisher countered a few days later by offering photographs from the February studio session. They were advertised as the products of “Mr. Lincoln’s last sitting.” That unsupported (and until recently, unquestioned) claim gave rise to the tradition that Gardner’s portraits had been taken just four days before Lincoln’s death, investing them with a special aura of martyrdom. We now know that these were not in fact the last portraits of Abraham Lincoln. Even though Gardner’s picture does not belong to the president’s final days, it records his weary and worried countenance during the last long weeks of the war, when the surrender at Appomattox was still some months away. 
I want to thank James J. Nance for the wonderful article posted here. Mr. Nance is also a talented artist and has produced a digital colorized version of O-116 which he sells online. I loved it so much, I bought one myself.
To view the piece, please see Mr. Nance’s website at:
If you want to read about Harold Holzer’s new book “Lincoln President-Elect: Abraham Lincoln and the Great Secession Winter 1860-1861” and review his very active speaking schedule, please link to:


For Professor Ronald Rietveld’s website, please link to:







If you are interested in Abraham Lincoln, you should read these interviews by two Lincoln experts:


“An Awesometalk With” Harold Holzer, Lincoln Scholar

(posted on November 10, 2008) 


  “An Awesometalk With” Dr. Thomas Schwartz, Illinois State Historian 

(posted on December 08, 2008) 




Tall man by gate pedestal thought to be Abraham Lincoln. If true, this could be the last known photograph of Lincoln taken while alive.



October 25, 2008: Barry Cauchon

According to a study released by the American Psychological Association in 2000, a firm handshake helps makes a good first impression. “The study, reported in the July, 2000 issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, found that consistent with the etiquette and business literature, there was a substantial relation between the features that characterize a firm handshake (strength, vigor, duration, eye contact and completeness of grip) and a favorable first impression”.

Earlier this week, I volunteered at another high-powered speakers’ event in Toronto. Two of the speakers on the program were former Russian World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov and Nobel Peace Prize winner Dr. Muhammad Yunus. Both are world class champions in their related fields.

I had a chance to meet both Garry Kasparov and Dr. Muhammad Yunus and greeted them with a handshake.

  Garry Kasparov is the former Russian World Chess Champion often regarded as the greatest chess player of all time. For twenty years, (1985 to 2005), he pretty well held the title of World Chess Champion until his retirement from chess in 2005. He then entered Russian politics, and at one point, even attempted to run for President of Russia. He speaks 9 languages, has written several books and was here in Toronto to speak on leadership, innovation and success. Much of his speech dealt with the corruption in the Russian government and his efforts in politics to get the support of Russian citizens to slowly clean up the system.

  Dr. Muhammad Yunus, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in Economics, is a Bangladeshi banker and economist. According to Wikipedia “He is famous for his application of ‘microcredit’, which is the extension of small loans to the unemployed, to poor entrepreneurs and to others living in poverty who are not considered bankable. These individuals lack collateral, steady employment and a verifiable credit history and therefore cannot meet even the most minimal qualifications to gain access to traditional credit.

Due to the success of microcredit, many in the traditional banking industry have begun to realize that these microcredit borrowers should more correctly be categorized as pre-bankable; thus, microcredit is increasingly gaining credibility in the mainstream finance industry and many traditional large finance organizations are contemplating microcredit projects as a source of future growth. Although almost everyone in larger development organizations discounted the likelihood of success of microcredit when it was begun, the United Nations declared 2005 the International Year of Microcredit”.

By further developing the microcredit system, and founding the Grameen Bank on this principal, both Dr. Yunus and the Grameen Bank received the Nobel Peace Prize.


Like many world champions, these men are revered in the different arenas they occupy in the public eye. We are awed by their feats and elevate them to the status of geniuses, expecting them to be strong, powerful and invincible. It’s interesting to feel this way about someone when you don’t know them personally. So when I had a chance to meet these outstanding men, I carried similar assumptions with me. 

After hearing his speech, my impression of Garry Kasparov was one of respect and admiration. Here was a man who had been a world chess champion for over 20 years and now was vigorously involved in politics to try to make life better for his fellow Russian countrymen. After his speech, Mr. Kasparov participated in a book signing for his latest book called “How Life Imitates Chess: Making the Right Moves, from the Board to the Boardroom”.

As the line up died down, I had a chance to say hello to Mr. Kasparov and shake his hand. I was surprised that his grasp was NOT firm and assertive like I assumed, but rather soft and gentle. He spoke quietly, joking that our first names were very similar. He was genuinely nice and considerate during the short time we spent together.


 After his speech, Dr. Muhammad Yunus did a signing for his book “Creating a World Without Poverty”. Again, the speech showed me why this man is a Nobel Peace Prize winner. The compassion he has for his fellow man is what makes Dr. Yunus notable. Like Garry Kasparov, I was proud to shake his hand. And when I did, Dr. Yumus’ grip was also soft and gentle.

I started pondering how I could have met not one, but two gifted world class statesmen and found that their handshakes were not as firm as I had imagined they’d be.

And then it hit me. Their handshakes were a reflection of their kind-hearted characters, not their achievements. These are warm and compassionate men who genuinely care for others. Their handshakes, both soft and gentle, reflect those qualities. 

So what’s in a handshake? The experts are not wrong when they say that a firm handshake makes a good first impression. But I’ve learned from this experience that a soft or gentle handshake can also carry a lot of meaning about the character of the person that is greeting you. Judging a book by its’ cover, or a person by their handshake, isn’t the best gauge of their value. In my case, with both Garry Kasparov and Dr. Muhammad Yunus, both gentlemen, and their handshakes, matched perfectly.

It was a very pleasant lesson learned.





October 22, 2008: Barry Cauchon

  If I have not mentioned it before, I volunteer for a high-powered speakers bureau in Toronto. Last week, President Bill Clinton was our guest and spoke on the economy and the upcoming Presidential elections. As tempting as it would be to share the content in detail of his speech, I feel this blog is far better served by talking to you about the President himself and his personal character.

I have been lucky enough to witness three live speeches by President Clinton in the last year. His presentation style is easy going but authoritative. He can take complex concepts (such as the economy) and make them easy to understand. And above all, he is so very likable and engaging that you really enjoy just listening to him speak.

But it’s the things that you don’t see on stage that have always impressed me about this great man.

On this particular day last week, President Clinton was scheduled to do a meet-and-greet photo session with about 100 paying guests. Two of our volunteers had been asked to assist the President’s staff with this part of the visit. They were given the task of holding the purses and other personal belongings of the people being photographed with the President as they did not want to be burdened with these items.

After the last person had been photographed with the President, he looked around and asked “Is there anyone else”? As there were not, and the fact that he was running fifteen minutes behind schedule, what he did next, tells a lot about this man. He looked toward our two volunteers, smiled and asked them to get the attention of the photographer. Our volunteers summoned the photographer, not knowing what the President required. But as they came back with her, President Clinton walked up to our two volunteers (two very nice senior ladies), put his arms around their shoulders and asked the photographer to take their picture together. They were both stunned and honored. As volunteers, we do not approach our guests for autographs or photographs. But here he was, the ex-President of the United States, insisting on taking this picture, even as his own staff was urging him onto the stage to start his speech.

So, regardless of your politics or of your opinion of President Clinton’s presidency, I can say that you will not find a more genuine person who is willing to give of himself to others. I believe he walks his walk and talks his talk.

If you ever have an opportunity to see President Clinton speak live, I urge you to do so. He’s straight forward and captivating. And he is very very likable.

By the way, when asked during his speech, who will be the next President of the United States, President Clinton answered “Obama……by a landslide”!

Time will tell in the next two weeks if this is the case.




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October 18, 2008: Barry Cauchon

I’d like to recommend two articles that I think you would enjoy reading. At the same time, I’d like your comments and feedback on them. Tell me what you think and let’s get a dialogue started. I look forward to hearing from you shortly.

The first goes by the title of “The Fame of Major General Lew Wallace” and the second is “Hangman Christian Rath: Incompetence, Complicity or Just Common Practice”.

The Fame of Major General Lew Wallace tells the story of a Civil War general who, in historical retrospect, was involved in some of the most memorable events of his time.

Then, as if that was not enough, he wrote three novels, one of which became a classic and is known world wide to this day. Find out which novel Lew Wallace wrote and what events he was prominently involved in by reading “The Fame of Major General Lew Wallace“.


  In the article, “Hangman Christian Rath: Incompetence, Complicity or Just Common Practice” the hangman responsible for executing four of the Lincoln conspirators is put on trial for botching some of the hangings. Did Rath mishandle the hangings which resulted in at least two of the conspirators needlessly suffering after the trap door was sprung? Did he purposely and maliciously conspire to inflict as much additional pain as possible on the guilty for their heinous crimes? Or was it just the way hangings were carried out and therefore, resulted in nothing out of the ordinary for that day and age? Find out by reading “Hangman Christian Rath: Incompetence, Complicity or Just Common Practice“.

Please read both articles and let me know what you think of them. I’d love to hear your comments.






If you are interested in Abraham Lincoln, you should read these interviews by two Lincoln experts:


“An Awesometalk With” Harold Holzer, Lincoln Scholar

(posted on November 10, 2008) 


  “An Awesometalk With” Dr. Thomas Schwartz, Illinois State Historian 

(posted on December 08, 2008)