2017: FREE SHIPPING UNTIL END OF MAY ON SUPPLEMENTS 1, 2 & 3

January 09, 2017: Barry Cauchon

2011 Supplement#1 Cover (55kb)   2012 Supplement#2-r1 Cover (257kb)   2013 Supplement#3 Cover (120kb)

Hi all:

At the beginning of every year, I like to repeat an offer to my blog followers that I started in 2015. 2017 will be no different. It is in regards to the three printed supplements from A Peek Inside the Walls series that my research partner, John Elliott and I wrote and published. The offer is a simple one. When you order any or all of these three supplements, I will include FREE SHIPPING to anywhere in the continental United States. Shipping costs to Hawaii, Alaska, Canada, Mexico and other international locations can be quoted upon request. NY residents please add 8% sales tax.

This offer is valid now until the end of May (ending May 31, 2017).

Please include the promo code PEEK2017 in your email subject line so I know to apply the Free Shipping rate to your order.

See supplement descriptions and ordering instructions below.

Thank you and have a great 2017.

Best

Barry

barryssentials@hotmail.com

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SPECIAL PRICES

One supplement = US $8.50 (includes any one supplement of your choice) + FREE SHIPPING = Total US $8.50.

Two supplements = US $8.25 each (includes any two supplements of your choice) + FREE SHIPPING = Total US $16.50.

Three supplements = US $7.50 each (includes any three supplements of your choice) + FREE SHIPPING = Total US $22.50.

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SUPPLEMENT DESCRIPTIONS:

No. 1: 2011 Supplement

No. 1: 2011 Supplement

Released in March, 2011, A Peek Inside the Walls: The Final Days of the Lincoln Conspirators (maroon cover)(24 pages). This was our first published booklet in the “A Peek” series and was meant to compliment our 2011 live presentation given at the Surratt House Museum and Surratt Society Lincoln Assassination conference. It was a ‘supplement’ for that talk. Since then, each publication in this series has been called a supplement.

This supplement features a chapter called Who Gave the Signal to Spring the Traps? in which our research challenged a long-standing historical belief that the man dressed in white, seen standing on the scaffold in the Alexander Gardner conspirator execution photos, was Christian Rath, the executioner. After conducting a thorough photographic analysis of the evidence and an extensive review of many first-person eyewitness accounts and resources, this belief was proven to be inaccurate. Due to poorly made assumptions, early misidentifications and, in one case, blatant fraud, our research led us to the solid conclusion that accepted history on this subject was wrong. The man in white was NOT Christian Rath. If you are like us, you’ll find the trail of evidence to be fascinating and the conclusions credible.

When the content of this supplement was first presented to the public at the 2011 conference, renown Lincoln Assassination expert, Dr. Terry Alford, Professor of History at Northern Virginia Community College, was in attendance. After our presentation, Dr. Alford addressed the audience and offered the following statement: It’s very difficult to do anything original and you guys have done it.  I think you deserve the highest praise for it because it’s truly remarkable”.

The research in this supplement has continued to receive enthusiastic acclaim from the Lincoln Assassination Research Community and the public and has been written up in articles for the Surratt Society Courier and the Lincoln Herald (the oldest Lincoln-related publication in print today).

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No. 2: 2012 Supplement (revised Fall 2013)

No. 2: 2012 Supplement (revised and updated in Fall 2013)

In March, 2012, we published our second conference supplement called A Peek Inside the Walls: The Final Days of the Lincoln Conspirators. 13 Days Aboard the Monitors: The Early Incarceration of the Conspirators, the Mug Shot Photo Sessions and the Truth about the Hoods (blue cover)(28 pages). It’s a long title but this supplement is packed with great information featuring the facts, tales and plausible theories surrounding the early incarceration of the conspirators aboard the U.S.S. Saugus and U.S.S. Montauk prior to being sent to the Arsenal Penitentiary. This supplement was revised in the fall of 2013 when additional information came to light.

Part 1: The Early Incarceration of the Conspirators. For thirteen days in April of 1865, the Union Navy, under the direction of the War Department, became an unexpected participant in the story of the Lincoln conspirators. From April 17 to April 29, eight men suspected in the attacks on President Lincoln and Secretary of State William Seward, were sent to the Washington Navy Yard for confinement aboard two ironclad monitors anchored offshore. Kept below decks under intolerable conditions, these prisoners were forced to wear iron restraints on their wrists and ankles, as well as hoods over their heads. They were interrogated and photographed, but mostly just left to sit in silence for endless hours of isolation to contemplate their fates.

Part 2: The Mug Shot Photo Sessions. Twenty-six famous, or infamous, ‘mug shot’ photographs of these prisoners were taken by Alexander Gardner during the prisoners’ time on the monitors. History has allowed many people to believe that all twenty-six images were shot during a single photo session on April 27. However, solid evidence, partnered with photographic analysis, suggests that multiple sessions were conducted. The results offer an intriguing and plausible alternative to the long-held ‘single photo session’ belief.

Part 3: The Truth about the Hoods. Much misinformation has been published about the hoods. In an attempt to clear up the confusion, this supplement offers a simple presentation of the facts concerning the following: 

•How many hood types were created?

•Who did, and did not, wear the hoods?

•When and where were each type worn?

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No. 3: 2013 Supplement

2013 Supplement

2013 Supplement

In August, 2013, we published our third supplement called A Peek Inside the Walls: The Final Days of the Lincoln Conspirators. The Mystery of John Wilkes Booth’s Autopsy Photo (sepia cover)(24 pages).

Often considered the Holy Grail of Lincoln assassination relics, John Wilkes Booth’s autopsy photo, presumed lost since 1865, has captivated the interest of countless researchers and historians, who believed that one day it would be found. Now, recently discovered evidence suggests that this prized photo may never have existed at all.

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PURCHASE INFORMATION

To purchase any of these supplements, please contact me by email at barryssentials@hotmail.com and indicate which supplement(s) and the quantity of each you wish to have. Also, please include your shipping address. Remember to add the promo code PEEK2017 for free shipping.

If you would like me to sign the supplements I am happy to do so…just ask. At present, John is unable to sign these as he resides in San Antonio, TX. These supplements ship from Corning, NY.

PAYMENT: Upon receiving your email, I will send you a confirmation quotation with payment options. I accept PayPal, checks, money orders or bank drafts. Please include your shipping address and indicate which payment method you wish to use so I can be on the look out for it.

All supplements are mailed from Corning, NY by USPS (United States Postal Services).

AVAILABILITY:  All three supplements are presently available. If the inventory becomes depleted, I will reprint as required. I will let you know prior to your payment of any delays you may be facing.

Thank you for considering A Peek Inside the Walls.  If you have any questions, please email me at barryssentials@hotmail.com. I’ll be happy to help assist you.

Best

Barry

barryssentials@hotmail.com

barry-roger-05jun16

ABOUT BARRY & JOHN – Barry Cauchon and John Elliott have been active members in the Lincoln Assassination research community since 2009 and specialize in the incarceration and punishments of the Lincoln Conspirators. Their research has been published in the Lincoln Herald, Surratt Society Courier and are credited in numerous assassination-related books. Both have presented their work at several Surratt Society Lincoln Assassination annual conferences and have advised on film and documentary projects such as Robert Redford’s “The Conspirator” (2010) and National Geographic’s “Killing Lincoln” (2013). John and Barry have jointly written and published three supplements (booklets) under the series name “A Peek Inside the Walls: The Final Days of the Lincoln Conspirators”.

147th Anniversary of Abraham Lincoln’s Assassination (April 14, 1865)

April 14, 2012: Barry Cauchon

Like the 100th anniversary of the sinking of the Titanic, tonight marks the 147th anniversary of the shooting of Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. The time was 10:15 pm EST. Tonight, if you are in the Eastern Time Zone under Daylight Savings Time, if you wish to accurately commemorate the moment, you would do this at 11:15 pm EDT.

The President would live throughout the night but die at 7:22 am the following morning on Saturday, April 15. This can be commemorated at 8:22 am EDT.

In three years (2015), it will be the 150th anniversary of the assassination.

Best.

Barry

Published in: on Saturday, April 14, 2012 at '8:55 pm'  Comments (1)  
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What Time Did the RMS Titanic Really Hit the Iceberg?

April 03, 2012: Barry Cauchon

The triple screws of the RMS Titanic

The triple screws of the RMS Titanic

As the 100th anniversary of the sinking of the Titanic approaches, I thought I’d republish an article I wrote back on April 18, 2009. I’ve updated the introduction and clarified some points, but the rest remains intact and is still relevant today. Enjoy. Barry

PS: I have added a TIME ZONE chart at the bottom of this article for people in the United States wishing to commemorate the exact time the Titanic hit the iceberg and sank (for your time zone today).

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April 14 & 15 marks the 100th anniversary of the sinking of the RMS Titanic. If you are like me, I enjoy thinking about events like this in ‘real time’. For instance, Abraham Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth at 10:15 pm EST (Eastern Standard Time) on April 14, 1865. I currently live in this same time zone so on every anniversary (April 14), originally between the hours of 10:00 pm and 10:30 pm, I would imagine the series of events that took place minute by minute. I’ve done this since I was a kid so please don’t assume that I’m certifiable (at least not just yet)! But a few years ago I realized that I had not factored in Daylight Savings Time. For you perfectionists, by considering Daylight Savings Time, the correct tim for these events actually should take place between 11:00 and 11:30 pm EDT.

In the sinking of the Titanic, a number of different factors come into play that mess up my little game so I thought I’d spend a few minutes explaining them to you (lol). The accepted facts about the sinking are this:

  1. The Titanic struck the iceberg at 11:40 pm on April 14, 1912.
  2. The Titanic sank 2 hours and 40 minutes later at 2:20 am on April 15, 1912.

Now here is where it gets tricky.

The times noted above were based on “shipboard” time (the actual time on the ship). Calculating time at sea does not follow conventional land-based time zones. This was certainly the case in 1912. But to truly know what the time difference was, relative to other time zones, requires whose version of the events you use. It has become a puzzle for many, but two main ‘time differences’ are generally considered.

The first is based on the testimony of Titanic’s Second Officer Charles Lightoller who put the time as being 1 hour, 33 minutes ahead of New York City time (Eastern Standard Time)(EST). The other is from Charles Bigham, known as “Lord Mersey” of the High Court of the British Wreck Commissioner’s Inquiry. Bigham indicated that the time difference was 1 hour and 50 minutes ahead of EST. As many of us are not lucky enough to be in the middle of the North Atlantic when the anniversary is celebrated, here are the adjusted times for Eastern Standard Time using both calculations.

Lightoller’s Version (1 hour 33 minutes ahead of EST)(-5)

  1. The Titanic struck the iceberg at 10:07 pm (EST) on April 14, 1912.
  2. The Titanic sank 2 hours and 40 minutes later at 12:47 am (EST) on April 15, 1912.

Lord Mersey’s Version (1 hour 50 minutes ahead of EST)(-5)

  1. The Titanic struck the iceberg at 9:50 pm (EST) on April 14, 1912.
  2. The Titanic sank 2 hours and 40 minutes later at 12:30 am (EST) on April 15, 1912.

But wait, there is more! For the real perfectionists out there, what about Daylight Savings Time in the Eastern Time Zone (EDT)(Eastern Daylight Time)? Well Daylight Savings Time was not a factor in 1912 as it didn’t go into use in England, Germany and the United States until WWI. However, it is in effect today. So if you attempt to reenact the minute by minute events in real time by using the EST calculations listed above you will once again be incorrect. Assuming that you are in, let’s say New York City for example, during Daylight Savings Time (EDT), then these are the correct times to base your ‘real time’ reenactment.

Lightoller’s Version (33 minutes ahead of EDT)(-4)

  1. The Titanic struck the iceberg at 11:07 pm (EDT) on April 14, 2012.
  2. The Titanic sank 2 hours and 40 minutes later at 1:47 am (EDT) on April 15, 2012.

Lord Mersey’s Version (50 minutes ahead of EDT)(-4)

  1. The Titanic struck the iceberg at 10:50 pm (EDT) on April 14, 2012.
  2. The Titanic sank 2 hours and 40 minutes later at 1:30 am (EDT) on April 15, 2012.

Confusing! You bet! But if this kind of perfection turns your crank, then use this last set of calculations above to get as close to the truth (as we know it) as you can get.

titanic

On April 14, 1912 I struck the iceberg at 11:40 pm shipboard time and sank at on April 15, 1912 at 2:20 am shipboard time.

So the next time you think about the RMS Titanic on the evening of April 14 & 15 know what time it really struck the iceberg and when it sank based on the two options above.

Note: If you are not in the Eastern Time Zone (such as New York City) and want to know the Titanic times as listed in the last example for 2012 times, go to any Time Zone Map and calculate the difference in hours between your time zone and the Eastern Time Zone, then either add or subtract the difference to find the correct times. For instance, California (PDT) is three hours behind New York City. Don’t forget about Daylight Savings Time if applicable (in this case, it is).

Lightoller’s Version (3 hours, 33 minutes ahead of EDT)

  1. The Titanic struck the iceberg at 8:07 pm (PDT)(-7) on April 14, 2012.
  2. The Titanic sank 2 hours and 40 minutes later at 10:47 pm (PDT)(-7) on April 14, 2012.

Lord Mersey’s Version (3 hours, 50 minutes ahead of EDT)

  1. The Titanic struck the iceberg at 7:50 pm (PDT)(-7) on April 14, 2012.
  2. The Titanic sank 2 hours and 40 minutes later at 10:30 pm (PDT)(-7) on April 14, 2012.

Best

Barry

QUICK REFERENCE CHART FOR UNITED STATES TIME ZONES
These are the times in your time zone to commemorate the exact moments the Titanic struck the iceberg and sank.

LIGHTOLLER VERSION – TITANIC STRIKES ICEBERG at 10:07 PM EST ON APRIL 14, 1912 (11:40 pm shipboard time)

MODERN DAY TIMES
EDT (EASTERN DAYLIGHT TIME) 11:07 PM (APR 14)
CDT (CENTRAL DAYLIGHT TIME) 10:07 PM (APR 14)
MDT (MOUNTAIN DAYLIGHT TIME) 9:07 PM (APR 14)
PDT (PACIFIC DAYLIGHT TIME) 8:07 PM (APR 14)
AKDT (ALASKA DAYLIGHT TIME) 7:07 PM (APR 14)
HST (HAWAII STANDARD TIME) 5:07 PM (APR 14)
MST (ARIZONA STANDARD TIME) 8:07 PM (APR 14)

LIGHTOLLER VERSION – TITANIC SINKS at 12:47 AM EST ON APRIL 15, 1912 (2:20 am shipboard time)

MODERN DAY TIMES
EDT (EASTERN DAYLIGHT TIME) 1:47 AM (APR 15)
CDT (CENTRAL DAYLIGHT TIME) 12:47 AM (APR 15)
MDT (MOUNTAIN DAYLIGHT TIME) 11:47 PM (APR 14)
PDT (PACIFIC DAYLIGHT TIME) 10:47 PM (APR 14)
AKDT (ALASKA DAYLIGHT TIME) 9:47 PM (APR 14)
HST (HAWAII STANDARD TIME) 7:47 PM (APR 14)
MST (ARIZONA STANDARD TIME) 10:47 PM (APR 14)

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LORD MERSEY VERSION – TITANIC STRIKES ICEBERG at 9:50 PM EST ON APRIL 14, 1912 (11:40 pm shipboard time)

MODERN DAY TIMES
EDT (EASTERN DAYLIGHT TIME) 10:50 PM (APR 14)
CDT (CENTRAL DAYLIGHT TIME) 9:50 PM (APR 14)
MDT (MOUNTAIN DAYLIGHT TIME) 8:50 PM (APR 14)
PDT (PACIFIC DAYLIGHT TIME) 7:50 PM (APR 14)
AKDT (ALASKA DAYLIGHT TIME) 6:50 PM (APR 14)
HST (HAWAII STANDARD TIME) 4:50 PM (APR 14)
MST (ARIZONA – STANDARD TIME) 7:50 PM (APR 14)

LORD MERSEY VERSION – TITANIC SINKS at 12:30 AM EST ON APRIL 15, 1912 (2:20 am shipboard time)

MODERN DAY TIMES
EDT (EASTERN DAYLIGHT TIME) 1:30 AM (APR 15)
CDT (CENTRAL DAYLIGHT TIME) 12:30 AM (APR 15)
MDT (MOUNTAIN DAYLIGHT TIME) 11:30 PM (APR 14)
PDT (PACIFIC DAYLIGHT TIME) 10:30 PM (APR 14)
AKDT (ALASKA DAYLIGHT TIME) 9:30 PM (APR 14)
HST (HAWAII STANDARD TIME) 7:30 PM (APR 14)
MST (ARIZONA STANDARD TIME) 10:30 PM (APR 14)

outreach@awesometalks.com

July 07, 1865 – Lincoln Conspirators Executed

July 07, 2010: Barry Cauchon

It was 145 years ago today that four of the eight conspirators tried for the assassination of Abraham Lincoln were marched to the gallows to carry out their sentences of execution.

This account is a simplified version of what occurred that day.

This image is from the front page of the March 21, 1896 edition of the Philadelphia Inquirer (sent to me by Boston Corbett expert Steven G. Miller)

George Atzerodt, David Herold, Lewis Powell and Mary Surratt (the first woman to be executed by the United States Federal Government) had received the news of their sentences only 24 hours earlier and now, their time had come.

Just after 1:00pm, the four condemned were escorted from their cell block into the south yard of the Arsenal Penitentiary where they had been held since early May. Their trial had been conducted in a makeshift courtroom on the third floor of the east wing of the facility.

As they emerged from the penitentiary’s heavily fortified door, they were accompanied by twenty-two other people (military officers, soldiers, detectives and clergy). One by one the conspirators were assisted up the thirteen steps of the scaffold and seated. The executioner, Captain Christian Rath, placed Mary Surratt in the chair farthest to the left. He later stated that this was the traditional “place of honor” for a hanging. Next to Mrs. Surratt was Lewis Powell, the man who attempted to assassinate the Secretary of State, William H. Seward on the same night that the President was cut down. Next came David Herold, who accompanied John Wilkes Booth during his 12-day flight after the assassination. Herold gave himself up when he and Booth were cornered in the tobacco barn at the Garrett Farm. Finally, George Atzerodt was seated at the far right side of the scaffold. Atzerodt’s assignment had been to kill Vice President Andrew Johnson, which he never even attempted, but was still convicted for his part in the conspiracy.

All four sat quietly while General John F. Hartranft read the Orders of Execution (the death warrant). Upon completing the reading, Lewis Powell’s minister stepped forward and  spoke on behalf of Powell, thanking the staff and soldiers who had guarded him for all their kindnesses and then said a prayer for Powell’s soul. Next came David Herold’s minister who did the same. George Atzerodt’s minister spoke last and repeated the process, thanking the staff and then praying for Atzerodt’s soul.

The two Catholic priests who accompanied Mary Surratt did not speak publicly and prayed with her quietly during this time.

After the last prayer had been said, there was nothing left to do but prepare the four for hanging. They were told to stand and were positioned on the traps that would be knocked out from under them in a few short minutes. Designated officers, detectives and the executioner bound their legs and arms with cloth strips, fitted the nooses around their necks and placed canvas hoods over their heads.

As soon as all were prepared, the assistants stepped back off of the traps, leaving only the four condemned standing and waiting. Quickly a signal was given and the traps were sprung. The four dropped. Two seemed to lose consciousness immediately and suffered little if any, while the other two remained conscious and ‘died hard’.

Thus brought to a close, the harshest punishments doled out by the military commission assigned to try the conspirators accused in the assassination of President Lincoln.

As many of you know, John Elliott (my writing and research partner) and I are preparing an in-depth study on the executions and the events that happened within the walls of the Arsenal Penitentiary. Our book is called “Inside the Walls: The Final Days of the Lincoln Conspirators”. It will be filled with photographs, illustrations, forensic and detailed analysis, architectural drawings, fascinating stories and a full review of the Alexander Gardner execution photographs.

We anticipate the book will be ready by the end of 2010.

If you wish to receive updated information on the book, please sign up on my update list by writing me at outreach@awesometalks.com and put the word BOOK in the subject line. As well, visit our Facebook page at Inside the Walls (click on the icon at the upper right hand side of this page).

Best

Barry

outreach@awesometalks.com

Protected: STATE YOUR CASE (No. 1): Deathbed Photo of Abraham Lincoln

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HOW OLD WAS ABRAHAM LINCOLN WHEN …

February 14, 2010: Barry Cauchon

HOW OLD WAS ABRAHAM LINCOLN WHEN …

1. … he won the first of four straight terms in the Illinois State Legislature? The year was 1834 and Lincoln was 25 years old.

2. … he his brother and sister passed away? Abraham Lincoln had one brother and sister, Thomas and Sarah. Thomas died in infancy sometime between 1811 to as late as 1815 (real date unknown). Sarah was two years older than Abraham. She died during childbirth three weeks before her 21st birthday on January 21, 1828. Abe would have been somewhere between the ages of 2 and 6 when his brother died, and almost 19 when his sister died.

3. … he had his first love? Abraham Lincoln first love may have been Ann Mayes Rutledge but there is no concrete evidence to support this. It is assumed that they were at least good friends sometime between 1830 and 1835, when Ann died at the young age of 22 years old. Lincoln would have been between the ages of 21 and 26 years old during this period.

4. … he proposed to a woman named Mary Owens? 1837 was the year that Abraham Lincoln proposed to Mary Owens. To his surprise and disappointment she turned him down. Abraham was 28.

5. … he first met Mary Ann Todd, his future Mrs. Lincoln? It was in 1839 and Abe was 30.

6. … he and Mary got engaged? It was in the fall of 1840 which would make Lincoln 31 years old.

7. … he broke of his engagement with Mary Todd (a lot of you didn’t know that, did you)? It was in 1841 and Abraham Lincoln would have been 32 years old.

8. …he faced down James Shields in a duel. It was on Sept 22, 1842 and after calmer  heads prevailed, the duel was called off. Mr. Lincoln was 33 years old.

9. … married Mary Todd.  The date was Nov 4, 1842 and Abraham was 33 years old. Mary would be his wife  for  the next 22-1/2 years until his assassination in 1865.

10. …he was elected as President of the United States for his first term? Lincoln was elected to office on November 6, 1860 when he was 51 years old.

11. …he was elected as President of the United States for his second term? Lincoln was elected for a second term on November 6, 1864 when he was 55 years old.

12. …he was assassinated on April 14, 1865? Lincoln was 56 years old.

Thank you.

Best

Barry

outreach@awesometalks.com

INSTANT REPLAY – LINCOLN ASSASSINATION ARTIFACTS (where to find them)

June 15, 2009: Barry Cauchon

Instant Replay is a feature which posts previously run articles for those who may not have read them in the past. Please enjoy this Instant Replay of LINCOLN ASSASSINATION ARTIFACTS (where to find them) originally posted on August 3, 2008. To date, it is the #1 posting with over twice as many hits as the next closest article. Recently added is a portion of the gallows crossbeam which the Lincoln conspirators were hanged from (Kansas State Historical Society). Quite an amazing artifact.

Enjoy the story.

https://awesometalks.wordpress.com/2008/08/03/lincoln-assassination-artifacts-where-to-find-them/

Best

Barry

outreach@awesometalks.com

THE CORRECT ORDER OF THE LINCOLN CONSPIRATOR EXECUTION PHOTOS

February 09, 2009: Barry Cauchon.

On February 6, 2009, while preparing chapters 7 & 8 for my series on “The Lincoln Conspirator Execution Photos – A Study in Detail” I made a discovery. It seemed that the accepted order of the ten photographs of the event taken by Alexander Gardner was incorrect. If my observations are right, the order of the photos need to be revised.

Here is what I found out.

The Empty Scaffold

The Empty Scaffold

#1 – The Empty Scaffold was the first photo taken in the series. No one debates this placement.

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THE ORDER CONFLICT – The next three photographs are the images where the order is in dispute.

Arrival at Scaffold (1)

Arrival at Scaffold (1)

#2 – Arrival at Scaffold (1) was the second photo taken. In James L. Swanson and Daniel R. Weinberg’s book, “Lincoln’s Assassins: Their Trial and Execution”, this photo is incorrectly placed. It is shown as being 3rd.

reading-the-death-warrant-1421

Reading the Death Warrant

#3 – Reading the Death Warrant shown in the Swanson / Weinberg book is listed as 4th.

arrival-at-scaffold-2-2425

The Ministers Pray (historically known as “Arrival at Scaffold”)(2)

#4 – The Ministers Pray (historically called Arrival at Scaffold)(2) is shown in the Swanson / Weinberg book as the 2nd photo taken.

Before I continue I just want to say that I have great respect for the book “Lincoln’s Assassins: Their Trial and Execution”. It really is a wonderful book and I can’t recommend it enough. However, the flaw in the order of photos #2, 3 & 4  should be clarified.

When the Swanson / Weinberg book was first published in 2001, they would not have had on-line access to the Library of Congress photos that are available today. And because of those high-rez images, we are now able to zoom in and see the details that the authors and other researchers may not have been privy to.

You can see all of the detailed images from photographs 2, 3 & 4 in my series “The Lincoln Conspirator Execution Photos – A Study in Detail”, Chapters 7, 8 & 9.

But briefly, here is what I saw and discovered when I zoomed in on the details.

Photo #2: Arrival at Scaffold: The execution party has just arrived and the scaffold is now crowded with 25 people. Things to note: a) Only three of the four prisoners have been seated so far. David Herold was just beginning to sit when the photo was taken. b) Only one umbrella has been opened to shield everyone from the hot sun. c) Everyone in the photo has their hats (or head coverings) on to protect them from the sun. d) General Hartranft holds the Death Warrant in his hand and is preparing himself to read it. The soldiers and staff near him are almost in the exact same position as they will be in the next photograph.

Photo #3: Reading of the Death Warrant:  As per the numerous eyewitness reports from newspapers and individuals at the execution, the reading of the Death Warrant came next in the proceedings. a) All four prisoners are now seated. b) Four umbrellas are open. c) Everyone still has their hat or head coverings on (except for one minister who is holding an umbrella). He previously wore his hat in Photo #2.  d) General Hartranft now reads the Death Warrant with his staff and soldiers surrounding him.

Photos #4: The Ministers Pray:  After the Death Warrant was read, Rev. Dr. Abram Dunn Gillette (Lewis Powell’s minister) stepped forward to publicly thank General Hartranft and his staff (on behalf of Lewis Powell) for their kind treatment during his imprisonment. Gillette and then two other ministers prayed publicly out loud for their charges. Corporal Wm. Coxshall, the soldier who stood below the scaffold (front left) reported that ““Umbrellas were raised above the woman and Hartranft, who read the warrants and findings. Then the clergy took over, talking what seemed to me interminably… ” a) Powell and Herold have had their hats removed. Atzerodt has had his white kerchief (or nightcap) removed and placed on the railing. This could be because the ministers have asked everyone to pray. b) Rev. Dr. Abram Dunn Gillette kneels to pray by Lewis Powell’s side. Mary Surratt’s two priests attend to her (Father Walter holds a cross to her lips and Father Wiget prays from his prayer book).

Arrival at Scaffold. a
Arrival at Scaffold. a) Only three of the four prisoners have been seated so far. David Herold was just beginning to sit when the photo was taken. b) Only one umbrella has been opened to shield everyone from the hot sun. c) Everyone in the photo has their hats (or head coverings) on to protect them from the sun. d) General Hartranft holds the Death Warrant in his hand and is preparing himself to read it. The soldiers and staff near him are almost in the exact same position as they will be in the next photograph.
Reading the Death Warrant

Reading the Death Warrant. a) All four prisoners are now seated. b) Four umbrellas are open. c) Everyone still has their hat or head coverings on (except for one minister who is holding an umbrella). He previously wore his hat in Photo #2. d) General Hartranft now reads the Death Warrant with his staff and soldiers surrounding him. 

The Ministers Pray

The Ministers Pray. a) Powell and Herold have had their hats removed. Atzerodt has had his white kerchief (or nightcap) removed and placed on the railing. This could be because the ministers have asked everyone to pray. b) Rev. Abram Dunn Gillette kneels to pray by Lewis Powell’s side. Mary Surratt’s two priests attend to her (Father Walter holds a cross to her lips and Father Wiget prays from his prayer book).

To look at all of the details from these, and the other photos from this series, see Chapter 1 under this link.

https://awesometalks.wordpress.com/the-lincoln-conspirators-execution-photos-a-study-in-detail-chapter-1-introduction/BestBarryoutreach@awesometalks.com——————————————————————————————-If you are interested in reading interviews from several historians, scholars and performers, take a look at the links below.

DID YOU KNOW (Part 15) ABRAHAM LINCOLN

1. Did you know … that Abraham Lincoln was the first President to make Thanksgiving a national holiday! On October 3, 1863 he issued a proclamation that set the precedent for the national holiday observed today. It is often referred to as the Proclamation of Thanksgiving and was written by Secretary of State, William Seward. Here is the proclamation as found in the Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Volume 6, pages 497-498, edited by Roy P. Basler.

By the President of the United States of America.

A Proclamation.

The year that is drawing towards its close, has been filled with the blessings of fruitful fields and healthful skies. To these bounties, which are so constantly enjoyed that we are prone to forget the source from which they come, others have been added, which are of so extraordinary a nature, that they cannot fail to penetrate and soften even the heart which is habitually insensible to the ever watchful providence of Almighty God. In the midst of a civil war of unequalled magnitude and severity, which has sometimes seemed to foreign States to invite and to provoke their aggression, peace has been preserved with all nations, order has been maintained, the laws have been respected and obeyed, and harmony has prevailed everywhere except in the theatre of military conflict; while that theatre has been greatly contracted by the advancing armies and navies of the Union. Needful diversions of wealth and of strength from the fields of peaceful industry to the national defence, have not arrested the plough, the shuttle or the ship; the axe has enlarged the borders of our settlements, and the mines, as well of iron and coal as of the precious metals, have yielded even more abundantly than heretofore. Population has steadily increased, notwithstanding the waste that has been made in the camp, the siege and the battle-field; and the country, rejoicing in the consciousness of augmented strength and vigor, is permitted to expect continuance of years with large increase of freedom. No human counsel hath devised nor hath any mortal hand worked out these great things. They are the gracious gifts of the Most High God, who,Page  497 while dealing with us in anger for our sins, hath nevertheless remembered mercy. It has seemed to me fit and proper that they should be solemnly, reverently and gratefully acknowledged as with one heart and one voice by the whole American People. I do therefore invite my fellow citizens in every part of the United States, and also those who are at sea and those who are sojourning in foreign lands, to set apart and observe the last Thursday of November next, as a day of Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the Heavens. And I recommend to them that while offering up the ascriptions justly due to Him for such singular deliverances and blessings, they do also, with humble penitence for our national perverseness and disobedience, commend to His tender care all those who have become widows, orphans, mourners or sufferers in the lamentable civil strife in which we are unavoidably engaged, and fervently implore the interposition of the Almighty Hand to heal the wounds of the nation and to restore it as soon as may be consistent with the Divine purposes to the full enjoyment of peace, harmony, tranquillity and Union.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of the United States to be affixed.

[L.S.]

Done at the City of Washington, this Third day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States the Eighty-eighth. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

2. Did you know … that on April 14, 1956, the last surviving person who was in Ford’s Theatre the night of the assassination passed away. His name was Samuel J. Seymour and he was 96 years old. It’s ironic that he died exactly 91 years to the day that the assassination took place. At the time of the assassination, Seymour was just 5 years old. His godmother, Mrs. George S. Goldsborough, took him to see Our American Cousin. They sat in the Dress Circle facing opposite the Presidential box and witnessed the assassination and Booth’s leap to the stage.

Reference: We Saw Lincoln Shot: One Hundred Eyewitness Accounts by Timothy S. Good.

we-saw-lincoln-shot-book-timothy-s-good

3. Did you know …  that Abraham Lincoln wore reading glasses? He first needed them at age 47 (around 1856). On the night of his death, the contents of Lincoln’s pockets held two pairs of his glasses/spectacles. The prescription for the lenses of the spectacles is +1.75 and +2.00.

 tm012-th at0050hs-th

Above is the collection of items President Lincoln had in his possession on the night of his assassination. Two pairs of eyeglasses were part of that collection. Courtesy Library of Congress.

NOTE: Just this month (November 19, 2008), a pair of Abraham Lincoln’s spectacles sold at the 2008 November The John Lattimer Collection of Lincolniana Grand Format Auction #6014 for US$179,250.00. The pair is made of zinc-colored metal with adjustable frames, open loop terminals.

lincolns-spectacles-1 

Best

Barry

outreach@awesometalks.com

—————————————————————–

To see the entire series, click here “SUMMARY OF THE “DID YOU KNOW” ABRAHAM LINCOLN SERIES (Parts 1-15)”         

—————————————————————–

  

If you are interested in Abraham Lincoln, you should read these interviews by three Lincoln experts:

 

“An Awesometalk With” ROGER NORTON, Webmaster of the ‘Abraham Lincoln Research Site’ (posted on December 30, 2008)

.

“An Awesometalk With” DR. THOMAS SCHWARTZ, Illinois State Historian (posted on December 08, 2008)

 

“An Awesometalk With” HAROLD HOLZER, Lincoln Scholar (posted on November 10, 2008)

 

 —————————————————————-

45th ANNIVERSARY OF JFK’S ASSASSINATION & 145th ANNIVERSARY OF LINCOLN’S GETTYSBURG ADDRESS

November 22, 2008: Barry Cauchon

Today marks the 45th anniversary of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963 at 12:30pm CST (1:30pm EST). And on November 19, 2008, we celebrated the 145th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln’s famous Gettysburg Address.

Photo of clock on the Texas School Book Depository showing time of the assassination. This photo was not taken on the day of the actual event.

The clock on the Texas School Book Depository showing the time of the assassination. This photo was not taken on the same day.

So I was curious to know what happened on November 19, 1963, when the country celebrated the 100th anniversary of Lincoln’s famous speech, especially in light of the fact that just three days later President Kennedy would be assassinated.

According to an article on BBC HOME, H2G2, this is what they wrote. It’s very interesting.

John F Kennedy and Gettysburg

During 1963, the 100th anniversary of the pivotal American Civil War battle was commemorated at the Gettysburg National Military Park by a variety of special events.

For the 50th and 75th anniversaries of the battle, Presidents Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D Roosevelt had come to the battlefield on 4 July and given speeches. In 1963, President John F Kennedy was invited to speak, but a previously arranged tour of Europe prevented him from doing so1. Undeterred, the anniversary organisers recruited the closest president they could find – Gettysburg, Pennsylvania resident Dwight Eisenhower.

Kennedy did tour the battlefield in March 1963 in an Oldsmobile convertible. He is said to have impressed his tour guides by being able to read the Gaelic inscription on the monument to the 28th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry2.

On Memorial Day3, Kennedy did not attend the ceremonies at the battlefield and sent Vice President Lyndon B Johnson in his stead. At the time, Johnson’s remarks drew little notice, but once he became president they took on special meaning: he had been the first Southerner to speak at Gettysburg about Civil Rights.

The final special event at the battlefield in 1963 was to mark the 100th anniversary of President Abraham Lincoln’s reading of his famous Gettysburg Address at the National Cemetery.

Again Kennedy declined an invitation to speak and again Eisenhower filled in admirably. Kennedy did send a message which read ‘Let us remember those thousands of American patriots whose graves at home, beneath the sea and in distant lands are silent sentries of our heritage’.

Kennedy had not been able to attend this event because he was needed in Texas to settle a political squabble between two Texan politicians – Governor John Connally and US Senator Ralph Yarborough. Instead of attending the ceremonies on 19 November, Kennedy flew down to Texas and stayed the weekend at Lyndon B Johnson’s ranch.

Three days later, on 22 November, Kennedy was assassinated as he rode through the streets of Dallas.

End.

.

On November 19, 1963, although not in Gettysburg, Kennedy made the following statement for the Centennial.
.
.
“From the past man obtains the insights, wisdom and hope to face with confidence the uncertainties of the future. Abraham Lincoln was keenly aware of this when, a century ago, he journeyed to Gettysburg to make “a few appropriate remarks.” Today, as we honor Lincoln’s immortal eulogy to the dead on Cemetery Ridge, let us remember as well those thousands of American patriots whose graves at home, beneath the sea and in distant lands are silent sentries of our heritage. Lincoln and others did indeed give us “a new birth of freedom;” but the goals of liberty and freedom, the obligations of keeping ours a government of and by the people are never-ending. On this solemn occasion let us all re`dedicate ourselves to the perpetuation of those ideals of which Lincoln spoke so luminously. As Americans, we can do no less.”

End

.

Let us remember our fallen Presidents and the soldiers who have served and died for their country by celebrating their deeds, their accomplishments and their lives rather than celebrating the anniversary of their deaths. The country must always honor their memories and be proud of what they’ve done for us.

Best 

Barry

outreach@awesometalks.com 

NEW LINCOLN PHOTO … A VERY SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT

AUGUST 22, 2008: To see the conclusion of this project see the article posted on August 21, 2008 called “Harold Holzer Comments on “Lincoln in Death” Photo.

 
August 13, 2008: Barry Cauchon
.
QUESTION: If someone came to you looking for help in proving whether a photo they owned was a genuine picture of Abraham Lincoln taken sometime after his death, would you be interested? Most of you would say “DAH, of course I’d be interested. Are you nuts”!
.
Well, for the past year, a gentleman, who owns such a picture, has been writing to experts and Lincoln writers, trying to find someone to look at it and comment on it’s authenticity one way or another. So after one year, can you guess what happened? Not one single person responded to him. Not one! How unbelievable is that!
.
But this very private gentleman, whom I’ll call Mr. P, isn’t one to give up easily. So last week, I received an email from him stating his desire to resolve this puzzle. I responded to him…and I’m glad I did. We have had many good exchanges ever since.
So to start, here is Mr. P’s email…
  
August 7, 2008
 
Hello to all. This site was very helpful to me in doing research on a Daguerreotype or tintype I found in a family Desk about a year ago. The desk has been in my family for many many years and really has never been cleaned out. I have had it 23 years. I wanted to move it to another room, so I started to clean it out. And in one of the small drawers, I found a photo, which my research finds is a Daguerreotype or tintype. Well, looking at it I said to myself “This looks like Abe Lincoln…dead!”. So I tried to find out as much info as I could. No one would return my emails etc. Now I know this sounds crazy but to me it looks like Abe Lincoln. I just want to find out if it may be the real thing on not. So any info would be helpful. Thank you.
.
WOW, just think…someone may have found a photo of Abraham Lincoln taken after his death!
It’s exciting. And that is why we want to share the experience and process with you. Over the next three weeks, we will be looking for people interested in helping us with our research. At the end of that three weeks we will publish the photo along with the research we’ve all gathered. Hopefully the combination of the photo and the research will lead to a great debate about its authenticity. We want to prove or disprove that this photo is Abraham Lincoln after death. Either result will be accepted as long as its been accomplished as objectively as possible.
.
The photo will be published here on Wednesday, September 03, 2008.
In coming posts, I will describe the photograph and the pros and cons that Mr. P and I believe need to be considered. As well, I will list the areas where we need more accurate information and research.
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Let’s have fun with this and maybe, you may be helping us to prove that a long lost photograph has been found that is Abraham Lincoln after death.
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Please comment here or send me an email at outreach@awesometalks.com with the subject line that reads “Lincoln Photo Research”.
.
Best
Barry
& Mr. P.
.

—————————————————————–

  

If you are interested in Abraham Lincoln, you should read these interviews by two Lincoln experts:

 

“An Awesometalk With” Harold Holzer, Lincoln Scholar

(posted on November 10, 2008) 

 

  “An Awesometalk With” Dr. Thomas Schwartz, Illinois State Historian 

(posted on December 08, 2008) 

 

—————————————————————–

DID YOU KNOW (PART 12) ABRAHAM LINCOLN

 1. Did you know … that a fellow by the name of Austin Gollaher (1806-98) once saved Abraham Lincoln from drowning? It’s true. Ten-year old Austin and seven-year old Abe were friends who lived about two miles from each other in Kentucky. In 1816, the two were on a hunting outing at Knob Creek when Lincoln fell in. Austin Gollaher was able to pull the almost drowned boy to safety just in the nick of time. To read the full story and an actual quote from Austin Gollaher himself, go to the Abraham Lincoln Research Site at:   http://rogerjnorton.com/Lincoln57.html 

 2. Did you know … that in August 1864, someone took a shot at Abraham Lincoln in an apparent assassination attempt? Once again, the Abraham Lincoln Research Site has a great article by webmaster R. J. Norton. In it, Mr. Norton refers us to a description of the event from Lincoln himself given to his good friend, Ward Hill Lamon. It’s a very interesting read.   http://rogerjnorton.com/Lincoln86.html 

3. Did you know … that Mary Ann Todd Lincoln, the wife of the president was only 5′-2″ tall. With the President being just under 6′-4″ tall, the difference between the two was a considerable 14 inches. They must have been a humorous sight when seen dancing together!

4. Did you know … that Abraham Lincoln was 56 years, 2 months and 3 days old when he died on April 15, 1865 from the gunshot would sustained the night night before at Ford’s Theatre. 

RECOMMENDATION — “ABRAHAM LINCOLN RESEARCH SITE” WEBSITE:

The website that I quoted above in items 1 & 2, are both from the “Abraham Lincoln Research Site”. It is an excellent source for Lincoln based information. The articles are well researched and written, and give you an excellent base for launching more indepth study. The site has been active since December 29, 1996. 

  http://rogerjnorton.com/Lincoln2.html 

Best

Barry

outreach@awesometalks.com

—————————————————————–

To see the entire series, click here “SUMMARY OF THE “DID YOU KNOW” ABRAHAM LINCOLN SERIES (Parts 1-15)”         

—————————————————————–

  

If you are interested in Abraham Lincoln, you should read these interviews by three Lincoln experts:

 

“An Awesometalk With” ROGER NORTON, Webmaster of the ‘Abraham Lincoln Research Site’ (posted on December 30, 2008)

.

 

“An Awesometalk With” DR. THOMAS SCHWARTZ, Illinois State Historian (posted on December 08, 2008)

 

“An Awesometalk With” HAROLD HOLZER, Lincoln Scholar (posted on November 10, 2008)

 

 —————————————————————-

DID YOU KNOW (Part 11) ABRAHAM LINCOLN

1. Did you know … that Abraham Lincoln could play a musical instrument? According to Weldon Petz, one the America’s leading Lincoln scholars, “Lincoln played the jews’ harp at the debates (with incumbent Democratic U.S. senator Stephen Douglas during the 1858 Illinois state election campaign)”.

2. Did you know …in 1876, Abraham Lincoln’s body was almost the victim of a grave robbing plot? Unbelievably, it’s true. It happened on November 7, 1876, when a team of Chicago counterfeiters attempted to steal Lincoln’s body Their plan was to ransom his body for both money and the release of one of their incarcerated members (their main counterfeit engraver!!!). For the complete story, please go to the Abraham Lincoln Research Site at   http://rogerjnorton.com/Lincoln47.html 

3. Did you know … that four soldiers of Company F, 14th Regiment, Veteran Reserve Corps were assigned the duty of springing the traps that hung the Lincoln conspirators?

The conspirators stood on two separate hinged platforms which were each supported by one vertical heavy wooden post. Stationed below the platform were four soldiers assigned to knock these posts out. On a signal from executioner Christian Rath, the posts were knocked out, thus springing the traps. Reports differ as to how many soldiers actually did the deed (two or four). As you can see from the photo by Alexander Gardner, four soldiers are present beneath the gallows. The soldier at the front left, leaning on the post is Private William Coxshall. At the time of the photo Coxshall, who was impatiently waiting for the formal process on the scaffold to end, stated the following. “I became nauseated, what with the heat and waiting, and taking hold of the supporting post, I hung on and vomited”.

Four soldiers wait below the gallows to "spring the trap"

Four soldiers wait below the gallows to "spring the traps". Private William Coxshall is the soldier holding the front left post below the platform.

In an engraving (below) from Harper’s Weekly dated July 22, 1865, two soldiers, not four are shown dislodging the posts. So the actual number seems to conflict. Do you know the answer to this question?

The actual answer is indeed four men. Their names were Coxshall, Shoup, Haslett and Taylor.

Engraving of Lincoln conspirators execution from Harper's Weekly, July 22,1865

Engraving of Lincoln conspirators execution from Harper's Weekly, July 22,1865

 

Best

Barry

outreach@awesometalks.com

 
 

—————————————————————–

To see the entire series, click here “SUMMARY OF THE “DID YOU KNOW” ABRAHAM LINCOLN SERIES (Parts 1-15)”         

—————————————————————–

  

If you are interested in Abraham Lincoln, you should read these interviews by three Lincoln experts:

 

“An Awesometalk With” ROGER NORTON, Webmaster of the ‘Abraham Lincoln Research Site’ (posted on December 30, 2008)

.

 

“An Awesometalk With” DR. THOMAS SCHWARTZ, Illinois State Historian (posted on December 08, 2008)

 

“An Awesometalk With” HAROLD HOLZER, Lincoln Scholar (posted on November 10, 2008)

 

 —————————————————————-

HANGMAN CHRISTIAN RATH: INCOMPETENCE, COMPLICITY OR JUST COMMON PRACTICE

Captain Christian Rath - Chief executioner / hangman of the condemned Lincoln conspirators

Captain Christian Rath – Chief executioner / hangman of the condemned Lincoln conspirators

According to published reports from the day of the Lincoln conspirator hangings on July 7, 1865, at least two of the four executed did not die cleanly (immediately). In fact, David E. Herold suffered for as much as 5 minutes while Lewis Powell (aka Paine) took even longer. Did the hangman, Captain Christian Rath of the Seventeenth Michigan Infantry, First Division, Ninth Corps, do his best even though it resulted in a questionable outcome? Or did Rath know exactly what he was doing and spitefully adjusted the ropes improperly to ensure that the victims suffered harshly for their crimes!

dddd

Preparations are made for the hanging of the Lincoln Conspirators on July 7, 1865.

One could argue that professional hangmen do not always make the correct decisions in carrying out their duties and as a result, the condemned can unintentionally experience agonizing deaths. In America, during the time of the Civil War, a “short drop” was used as the standard in hanging. This would involve a drop of 4 to 6 feet regardless of the height or weight of the criminal. England would later develop the “long drop”, where precise calculations of the criminal’s height and weight would be made to determine the appropriate distance of the drop. According to the article “Hanged by the Neck Until You Are Dead” at  http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/hanging.html  “A standard drop of 5 feet was used for the Lincoln conspirators despite significant weight variations”.

What factors can be attributed to Rath’s performance on the scaffold on that hot July day? Considering that 50% of the hangings appear to have been mishandled, it is easy to become suspicious about the results. The first question to ask is whether Rath was a competent or experienced hangman?  He was not. Only one other time was he scheduled to be the hangman at an execution but a last minute reprieve of the defendant relieved him of that responsibility.  So whether he was capable of performing this multiple hanging or not, the appearance of potential sabotage is raised.

dfadf

Apparently, George Atzerodt (right) and Mary Surratt (not shown) were the only two conspirators to die cleanly.

The second question is more ‘conspiracy based’ and hints at a more sinister motive. Could Rath have intentionally manipulated the event, shortening the ropes to the detriment of the victims? Given the mood of the day and the outright blood lust to avenge both Lincoln’s assassination and to punish the South for the war, it is plausible that this scenario is possible. Perhaps Rath, acting alone, or on orders from his commanders or government officials, ensured that some, if not all, of the conspirators experienced difficult deaths. In particular, Lewis Powell, who attacked Secretary of State William Seward, and David E. Herald, who accompanied Booth during their 12-day run from the authorities, suffered the most on the gallows.

In the end, it’s all conjecture but makes for an interesting discussion/debate. My personal belief is that the hangings were appropriately arranged based on the knowledge and standard of the day. Evidence shows that Rath very much respected Powell and had no ill will towards him. His hope that he would die quickly was genuine and I believe that he did everything he could to ensure that Powell’s hanging was quick and painless. Regrettably, the results did not work out that way. Please feel free to add your input and opinions.

I look forward to hearing from you on this subject.

Best

Barry

outreach@awesometalks.com

NOTE: Below, is an excerpt from the article “Hanged by the Neck Until You Are Dead” found at http://www.geocities.com/trctl11/hanging.html which discusses the intricacies of hanging and the protocols involved. It is appropriate for this discussion.
 
How hanging causes death.
Hanging with no or insufficient drop typically produces death by strangulation (asphyxia) due to the weight of the person’s body pulling down on the noose, causing it to tighten and constrict the trachea (air passage) and applying pressure to the large blood vessels in the neck. The condemned person usually struggles for some time after suspension, due to the physical pain caused by the noose. It can take up to 3 minutes for the person to lapse into unconsciousness in this form of hanging, as the rope occludes the jugular veins and carotid arteries but the vertebrae protects the vertebral and spinal arteries which also supply blood to the brain. However, these arteries go outside the fourth vertebrae instead of inside it, which subjects them to blockage if the pressure on the neck is high enough (usually about 40-50 lbs. for a normal person) and this can cause the loss of consciousness in less than 15 seconds. Death can also come from sudden stoppage of the heart due to pressure on the carotid arteries which can cause a lethal carotid sinus reflex or from Vagal reflex (pressure on the Vagal nerve) which causes unconsciousness very quickly. This form of hanging is typical in suicides and it quite normal for the inquest to find that the victim died from heart failure rather than strangulation.
After suspension the face may become engorged and cyanosed (turned blue through lack of oxygen). The tongue may protrude and rippling movements of the body and limbs may occur which are usually attributed to nervous and muscular reflexes. There exist many pictures of actual hangings, both judicial and suicide, which seem to show that the person died quickly and quite peacefully.
In death, the body typically shows marks of suspension, e.g., bruising and rope marks on the neck and in some cases traces of urine, semen and feces. Male prisoners sometimes have penile erections and even ejaculate while hanging.
This form of asphyxial death is known, medically as anoxia, as the brain becomes starved of oxygen. Whole body death results usually within less than 20 minutes.

Where a measured drop is used, it takes between a quarter and a third of a second for a person to reach the end of the rope after the trap opens. The force produced by the prisoner’s body weight multiplied by the length of fall and the force of gravity, coupled with the position of the knot is designed to cause a virtually instant fracture-dislocation of the neck which leads to death by comatose asphyxia. Typically brain death will occur in around 3-6 minutes and whole body death within 5-15 minutes.
The cause of death is still asphyxia but the condemned person is deeply unconscious at the time due to dislocation of the cervical vertebrae and the crushing or separation of the spinal cord. The face may come engorged and then cyanosed and the tongue may protrude. Some slight movements of the limbs and body may occasionally occur and are attributed to spinal reflexes. The prisoner may urinate and/or defecate as their muscles relax. The heart can continue to beat for as long as 25 minutes after the drop.

Does the prisoner feel pain after the drop?
Obviously no one can be sure but it is generally held that if they do feel pain, it is only during the instant that their neck is broken.
The witnessed hangings of WestleyAllan Dodd (see above) in Washington and Billy Bailey in Delaware did not indicate any obvious signs of conscious suffering.
It is probable that many people blackout as they fall through the trap and are already unconscious before they reach the end of the drop.
However, according to Harold Hillman, a British physiologist who has studied executions, “the dangling person probably feels cervical pain, and suffers from an acute headache, as a result of the rope closing off the veins of the neck. It had been generally assumed that fracture-dislocation of the neck causes instantaneous loss of sensation. Sensory pathways from below the neck are ruptured, but the sensory signals from the skin above the noose and from the trigeminal nerve may continue to reach the brain until hypoxia blocks them”.
In the opinion of Dr. Cornelius Rosse, the chairman of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Washington School of Medicine, the belief that fracture of the spinal cord causes instantaneous death is wrong in all but a small fraction of cases.

END.

Best

Barry

outreach@awesometalks.com

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DID YOU KNOW (Part 10) ABRAHAM LINCOLN

In this version of DID YOU KNOW (Part 10) ABRAHAM LINCOLN, you’ll discover that there are an amazing amount of unique facts found about Mr. Lincoln after his death.

1. Did you know … that Abraham Lincoln was the first President of the United States to be embalmed?

2. Did you know … that after the president’s death, over one million people looked upon Lincoln’s face in open casket viewings?

It’s true. After it was decided that Lincoln would be buried in his hometown of Springfield, Illinois, a special funerary train trip was planned. Lincoln’s Funeral Train would essentially take the reverse route used by the President-elect in 1861 from Springfield to Washington. This time however, both Cincinnati and Pittsburgh would be bypassed in favor of Chicago.

The train car called "United States" was used as Lincoln's Funeral Car.                                                                             This car, called the United States, carried the coffins of both President Lincoln and his son, WIllie.

The Lincoln Funeral Train in Harrisburg, PA.

The Lincoln Funeral Train in Harrisburg, PA.

The coffin with the remains of Lincoln’s 11 year old son, Willie, who died of typhoid fever in the White House in 1862, was placed on the train with his father. Both would be buried together in Springfield.

The train dubbed “The Lincoln Special” left Washington DC on April 21, 1865 and arrived in Springfield on May 3rd.

Lincoln Funeral Train Route (Apr 21 - May 3, 1865)

Lincoln Funeral Train Route (Apr 21 - May 3, 1865)

During the 1,654 mile, 13 day trek, the train traveled through 180 towns and cities, of which only 11 were allowed to host open-casket viewings. These cities were:

1.   Baltimore, MD

2.   Harrisburg, PA

3.   Philadelphia, PA

4.   New York, NY

5.   Albany, NY

6.   Buffalo, NY

7.   Cleveland, OH

8.   Columbus, OH

9.   Indianapolis, IN

10.  Chicago, IL

11.  Springfield, IL

Sidebar:As early as the New York stopover, observers noticed that Lincoln’s face was showing signs of blackening and discolorization. For the remainder of the trip, undertakers would frequently apply white chalk powder, rouge and amber makeup to make the President appear as normal as possible.

3. Did you know … that only one photograph is known to exist of President Lincoln lying in his open coffin? It was taken on Monday, April 24, 1865 in the rotunda of New York’s City Hall while the president’s body was prepared for public viewing. New York photographer Jeremiah Gurney, Jr. took several photographs of Lincoln while lying in state. The following day, after hearing about the existence of these photographs, a furious Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton ordered that all the plates, prints and engravings be destroyed. This order was carried out with the photographer’s cooperation. One print did escape this fate and was sent to Stanton himself. He kept it hidden in his papers for fear of rebuke by Mary Lincoln. In 1887, Stanton’s son Lewis, discovered it and sent it to John Nicolay believing that he, and John Hay, Lincoln’s former secretaries, would use it in their 10-volume life of Lincoln.  They did not. It remained out of the public eye until July 20, 1952 when a fourteen-year old boy named Ronald Rietveld, found it amongst John Nicolay-John Hay’s papers at the Illinois State Historical Library. 

Lincoln lies in state in NYC's City Hall on April 24, 1865

Sidebar: When Stanton found out about the photographs, he sent a telegram to Brigadier-General Townsend accompanying the President’s body on his final journey. Taken from the book “Lincoln: An Illustrated Biography” by Philip B. Kunhardt Jr., here are the series of telegrams that went back and forth between Stanton and Townsend regarding this incident. 

 

Washington City,

April 25, 1865 – 11:40 p.m.

Brigadier-General Townsend,

Adjutant-General, New York:

    I see by the New York papers this evening that a photograph of the corpse…was allowed to be taken yesterday in New York. I cannot sufficiently express my surprise and disapproval of such an act while the body was in your charge. You will report what officers of the funeral escort were or ought to have been on duty at the time this was done, and immediately relieve them…. You will also direct the provost-marshall to go to the photographer, seize and destroy the plates and any pictures or engravings that may have been made, and consider yourself responsible if the offense is repeated.

 Edwin M. Stanton

Secretary of War.

 

 ****

 

Albany, N.Y.

April 26, 1865

(Received 10:40 a.m.)

Hon. E. M. Stanton

Secretary of War:

    Your dispatch of this date is received. The photograph was taken when I was present…. I have telegraphed General Dix your orders about seizing the plates. To whom shall I turn over the special charge given me in order to execute your instructions to relieve the officer responsible…?

 E. D. Townsend,

Assistant Adjutant-General.

 

****

 

 

Washington City,

April 26, 1865 – 12:30 p.m.

Brig.Gen. E. D. Townsend,

 … You being in charge, and present at the time, the sole responsibility rests upon you; but having no other officer … that can relieve you and take your place you will continue in charge of the remains under your instructions until they are finally interred….

Edwin M. Stanton,

Secretary of War.

 

****

 

Albany, N.Y.

April 26, 1865

 Hon. E. M. Stanton

General Dix, who is here, suggests that I should explain to you how the photograph was taken. The remains had just been arranged in state in the City Hall, at the head of the stairway, where the people would ascend on one side and descend on the other…. The photographer was in a gallery twenty feet higher than the body, and at least forty distant from it. Admiral Davis stood at the head and I at the foot of the coffin. No-one else was in view. The effect of the picture would be general taking in the whole scene, but not giving the features of the corpse.

 E. D. Townsend

Best

Barry
  
outreach@awesometalks.com 

 

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To see the entire series, click here “SUMMARY OF THE “DID YOU KNOW” ABRAHAM LINCOLN SERIES (Parts 1-15)”         

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If you are interested in Abraham Lincoln, you should read these interviews by three Lincoln experts:

 

“An Awesometalk With” ROGER NORTON, Webmaster of the ‘Abraham Lincoln Research Site’ (posted on December 30, 2008)

.

“An Awesometalk With” DR. THOMAS SCHWARTZ, Illinois State Historian (posted on December 08, 2008)

 

“An Awesometalk With” HAROLD HOLZER, Lincoln Scholar (posted on November 10, 2008)

 

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DID YOU KNOW (Part 8) ABRAHAM LINCOLN

1. Did you know … that Abraham Lincoln never traveled to a foreign country. He spent his entire life in the United States. There is no record of him ever entering Canada or Mexico. Nor did he ever travel abroad. However, on the night of his assassination, he mentioned to his wife Mary that he would like to one day visit Jerusalem.

2. Did you know … that fifteen people turned down President Lincoln’s invitation to join him and Mary at Ford’s Theatre on the night of his assassination, April 14, 1865? One reason is that it was Good Friday of the Easter weekend so many of them could have had other plans, as they claimed. But when you consider that fifteen people turned down the President of the United States to spend the evening with him, it does make you wonder.

The fifteen that turned down the Lincoln’s were, (in no particular order): Mr. & Mrs. Edwin Stanton, General & Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant, William A. Howard, General Isham N. Haynie, Richard J. Olgesby, Richard Yates, Noah Brooks, Thomas Eckert, George Ashmun, Schuyler Colfax, Mr. & Mrs. William H. Wallace & Robert Lincoln.

What reasons did they have? Here are the reasons given by each participant.

1 & 2. Edwin Stanton was Lincoln’s Secretary of War. Mrs. Stanton did not like Mary Todd Lincoln and this is believed to be the reason they turned down the invitation.

3 & 4. Mr. & Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant told the President that they were catching a train to New Jersey to visit their children for the weekend. The real belief was that, like Mrs. Stanton, Mrs. Grant did not like Mary Todd Lincoln and had no intention of spending an evening with her.

5. William A. Howard, was the Postmaster of Detroit. He told Mr. Lincoln that the he was headed out of town later that day.

6, 7 & 8. General Isham N. Haynie (a visitor from Illinois), Richard J. Olgesby (Governor of Illinois) & Richard Yates (ex-Governor of Illinois) all claimed to be meeting friends that night.

9. Noah Brooks was a reporter who turned down the Lincoln’s because he was suffering from a cold.

10. Thomas Eckert was a telegraph operator at the War Department. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton told Eckert that he could not go because he had too much work to do.

11. George Ashmun of Massachusetts had presided over the 1860 Republican Convention (where Lincoln was nominated for President) explained to Mr. Lincoln that he had a previous engagement.

12. Shuyler Colfax, the Speaker of the House of Representatives was traveling to the Pacific Coast the following morning so declined the evening out.

13 & 14. Mr. & Mrs. William H. Wallace, the Governor of Idaho territories, claimed to be too tired to attend the play that evening.

15. Robert Lincoln, the President’s eldest son, turned them down because he had just returned from a tour of duty with General Grant. He was tired and just wanted to go to bed.

———–

So, for whatever reasons these fifteen people had that day, there is no telling if any of them would have been able to save the President from his fate that night. We can just never know.

Best

Barry

outreach@awesometalks.com

—————————————————————–

To see the entire series, click here “SUMMARY OF THE “DID YOU KNOW” ABRAHAM LINCOLN SERIES (Parts 1-15)”         

—————————————————————–

  

If you are interested in Abraham Lincoln, you should read these interviews by three Lincoln experts:

 

“An Awesometalk With” ROGER NORTON, Webmaster of the ‘Abraham Lincoln Research Site’ (posted on December 30, 2008)

.

“An Awesometalk With” DR. THOMAS SCHWARTZ, Illinois State Historian (posted on December 08, 2008)

 

“An Awesometalk With” HAROLD HOLZER, Lincoln Scholar (posted on November 10, 2008)

 

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Published in: on Tuesday, June 17, 2008 at '9:10 pm'  Leave a Comment  
Tags: , , , ,

DID YOU KNOW (Part 4) ABRAHAM LINCOLN

 

In the FOURTH installment of “Did you know” Abraham Lincoln series, here are a few more unique facts about our 16th President of the United States. 

1. Did you know … that at the time of his election in 1860 in Springfield, Illinois, Abraham Lincoln and his family owned a dog named FIDO. Unfortunately, due to the fact that the Lincoln’s had to moved to Washington DC, they gave it away to two young neighborhood boys named Frank and Johnny Roll with instructions to take very good care of him. Just before leaving, the Lincoln’s took Fido to a local photographer to have his pictures taken. 

2. Did you know … that Robert Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln’s oldest son, lived until 1926. In 1922 he retired from politics but made his last public appearance on May 30, 1922 at the dedication ceremony for his father’s memorial in Washington DC (the Lincoln Memorial). 

Chief Justice Taft, President Harding and Robert Lincoln at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial in 1922. Chief Justice William Howard Taft (27th President of the United States), President Harding (29th President of the United States), and Robert Lincoln at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial in 1922. 

3. Did you know … that Robert Todd Lincoln had a series of strange coincidences that related to Presidential Assassinations. According to Wikipedia, the following facts are listed: 

“There is coincidence in regard to Lincoln and presidential assassinations. He was either present or was nearby when three of them occurred. [4] 

  • Lincoln was invited to accompany his parents to the Ford’s Theatre the night his father was shot by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865. Citing fatigue from riding in a covered wagon for an extended period of time, he declined and remained behind at the White House, where he immediately went to bed. He was informed of the President’s being shot just before midnight.

4. Did you know … that even a stranger coincidence exists between Robert Todd Lincoln and the Booth family. According the Abraham Lincoln Research Site, in 1863 or 64, Robert Lincoln fell onto the railroad tracks at a New Jersey train station and was saved by Edwin Booth, John Wilkes older brother.  To read the full story which includes a first hand account by Robert Lincoln, please link to: http://rogerjnorton.com/Lincoln59.html 

Best

Barry 

outreach@awesometalks.com 

  

—————————————————————– 

To see the entire series, click here “SUMMARY OF THE “DID YOU KNOW” ABRAHAM LINCOLN SERIES (Parts 1-15)”           

—————————————————————– 

   

If you are interested in Abraham Lincoln, you should read these interviews by three Lincoln experts: 

  

“An Awesometalk With” ROGER NORTON, Webmaster of the ‘Abraham Lincoln Research Site’ (posted on December 30, 2008) 

. 

  

“An Awesometalk With” DR. THOMAS SCHWARTZ, Illinois State Historian (posted on December 08, 2008) 

  

“An Awesometalk With” HAROLD HOLZER, Lincoln Scholar (posted on November 10, 2008) 

  

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Published in: on Wednesday, June 4, 2008 at '7:53 pm'  Leave a Comment  
Tags: , , , , , , ,

DID YOU KNOW (Part 2) ABRAHAM LINCOLN


As we move closer towards the 200th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln’s birthday (February 12, 2009), I will continue to post unique stories and featurettes on the man, as well as locations where you can visit to see artifacts from his life.

To start the ball rolling, I’ll lead you to another great depository of Lincoln artifacts and history.

1. Did you know… that the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield, Illinois is dedicated to sharing the life of Lincoln and his family to visitors. Displays, exhibits, interactives and many artifacts are part of the museum’s presentation. Visit http://www.alplm.org/museum/museum.html for current information.

For an article written in July, 2007 of the recent acquisition of Lincoln family artifacts by the museum, please link to
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19296033/ .


   Abraham Lincoln’s bloodstained
   gloves and the handkerchief the
   former president carried on the
   night of his death are part the
   Taper Collection acquired
   by the Abraham Lincoln Presidential
   Library and Museum.

2. Did you know… that the there is a medical debate that started in the 1960’s about whether Mr Lincoln had Marfan Syndrome. It is an argument that still goes on to this day. According to an article in About.com titled Abraham Lincoln and Marfan Syndrome the story suggests that  “The diagnosis was based on physical observations of Lincoln: the fact that he was much taller than most men of his day, with long limbs, an abnormally-shaped chest, and loose (lax) joints (based on written descriptions).

What is Marfan syndrome?
Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder of connective tissue, although about one-quarter of all cases occur without any family history of the syndrome.

It affects both men and women of any ethnic background.

Marfan syndrome affects many parts of the body, including:

  • Heart – The main artery which carries blood away from the heart, the aorta, is weak and fragile, and can tear or burst if left untreated. The heart’s mitral valve can also leak or fail.
  • Bones and joints – People with Marfan syndrome tend to have long limbs and are usually, but not always, tall. The syndrome can also cause spine problems, abnormally-shaped chest, and loose joints.
  • Eyes – The syndrome often causes nearsightedness, and about 50% of the time dislocation of the lens of the eye.

Note: Lincoln also had a droopy right eye.

To view the whole story, link to http://rarediseases.about.com/cs/marfansyndrome/a/092402.htm 

3. Did you know… David Herold, who was one of four Lincoln assassination conspirators hung on July 7, 1865, spent 12 days on the run in the company of John Wilkes Booth. When finally cornered in a barn at the Garrett farm in Virginia, Herold gave himself up to Union soldiers while Booth refused to. Booth was eventually shot in the neck, paralyzed and died at the scene. David Herold was tried with seven suspected conspirators, of which he, and three others were sentenced to death by hanging at the Old Arsenel Penitentiary. By the way, David Herold is the third from the left.

4. Did You Know… that the price of tickets for the production of “Our American Cousin” at Ford’s Theatre the night of the assassination was as follows: Orchestra (main level, chair seating) $1.00, Dress Circle (first balcony, chair seating) $.75, Family Circle (second balcony, bench seating) $.50.

Have a great day.
Barry

outreach@awesometalks.com

—————————————————————–

To see the entire series, click here “SUMMARY OF THE “DID YOU KNOW” ABRAHAM LINCOLN SERIES (Parts 1-15)”         

—————————————————————–

  

If you are interested in Abraham Lincoln, you should read these interviews by three Lincoln experts:

 

“An Awesometalk With” ROGER NORTON, Webmaster of the ‘Abraham Lincoln Research Site’ (posted on December 30, 2008)

.

“An Awesometalk With” DR. THOMAS SCHWARTZ, Illinois State Historian (posted on December 08, 2008)

 

“An Awesometalk With” HAROLD HOLZER, Lincoln Scholar (posted on November 10, 2008)

 

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DID YOU KNOW (Part 1) ABRAHAM LINCOLN


In 2009, we will celebrate the bicentenary (200 years) of the birth of Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809 in Hodgenville, Hardin County, Kentucky. In Lincoln’s own words, written five months before the Republican party nomination, he wrote…   
“I was born Feb. 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. My parents were both born in Virginia, of undistinguished families–second families, perhaps I should say. My mother, who died in my tenth year, was of a family of the name of Hanks…. My father … removed from Kentucky to … Indiana, in my eighth year…. It was a wild region, with many bears and other wild animals still in the woods. There I grew up…. Of course when I came of age I did not know much. Still somehow, I could read, write, and cipher … but that was all.”
 (see Biography of Abraham Lincoln
http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/al16.html
OTHER INTERESTING FACTS:

1. Did you know . . . that the following Lincoln based artifacts are found at the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Washington, D.C.  
Lincoln bullet, skull fragments & probe
 
 The ball (bullet) that killed President Lincoln recovered during the autopsy.

Skull fragments from Lincoln recovered during the autopsy.

The probe used by Dr. Barnes to remove the ball and skull fragments from Lincoln’s injury during his autopsy.

John Wilkes Booth’s 3rd, 4th and 5th Cervical (Neck) Vertebrae (showing the path of the bullet that killed him).

  Booths 3rd, 4th & 5th vertibrae with path of bullet

http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/explore/anatifacts/6_booth.html

2. Did you know . . .  that Lincoln had two Life Masks made of his face (and one set of his hands). One mask was made in 1860 by Leonard Volk just prior to Lincoln’s nomination for President and the other was made by Clark Mills on February 11, 1865 just two months prior to his assassination. 

 Although many websites discuss these two life masks, the write up on the Smithsonian Institute’s website is of interest. http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/travpres/lincs.htm 

 

“Comparing this mask with the one done in 1860 by Leonard Volk, it is clear how great a toll the Civil War had taken on Lincoln’s health. One friend who saw him a few weeks after the mask was made noted that he “looked badly and felt badly.” To another friend Lincoln confided, “I am very unwell.”

3. Did you know . . . that the contents of Lincoln’s pockets from the night of the assassination are housed at the Library of Congress. Some of these items included newspaper clippings, spectacle and reading glasses and their cases, a pocket knife and even a Confederate five dollar bill. 
 
  
4. Did you know . . . The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library in Springfield, Illinois houses many exhibits, photographs and artifacts.  

http://www.illinoishistory.gov/lib/lincolncoll.htm 

Best
Barry 
 

outreach@awesometalks.com 

 

—————————————————————–

To see the entire series, click here “SUMMARY OF THE “DID YOU KNOW” ABRAHAM LINCOLN SERIES (Parts 1-15)”         

—————————————————————–

  

If you are interested in Abraham Lincoln, you should read these interviews by three Lincoln experts:

 

“An Awesometalk With” ROGER NORTON, Webmaster of the ‘Abraham Lincoln Research Site’ (posted on December 30, 2008)

.

“An Awesometalk With” DR. THOMAS SCHWARTZ, Illinois State Historian (posted on December 08, 2008)

 

“An Awesometalk With” HAROLD HOLZER, Lincoln Scholar (posted on November 10, 2008)

 

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